Brendan McKenzie

The Social Contract

Thursday, 11 May 2023


In philosophy, few thinkers have left as profound an impact on political and social thought as Jean-Jacques Rousseau. One of his seminal works, "The Social Contract," delves into the intricate relationship between individuals and society, shedding light on whether humans are inherently social creatures. This blog post explores Rousseau's ideas, focusing on the concept of the social contract and its implications for our understanding of human nature and societal dynamics.

Unveiling the Social Contract

Rousseau's notion of the social contract proposes that individuals willingly surrender some of their natural rights and freedoms to form a collectively binding agreement with society. This contractual arrangement serves as the foundation for establishing political systems and maintaining social order. However, it raises intriguing questions about the inherent sociability of human beings.

The Dichotomy of Human Nature

At the core of Rousseau's philosophy lies a fascinating paradox: while humans possess a natural inclination towards self-interest and self-preservation, they also possess the capacity for empathy, compassion, and social cooperation. This dichotomy shapes the intricate dynamics of the social contract, which requires individuals to navigate their inherent selfishness while considering collective welfare.

"Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole." The Social Contract, Book II, Chapter VI

The Pursuit of Happiness

Rousseau argues that individuals enter the social contract not out of an inherent desire for sociability but due to the practical necessity of living in a society. However, even within the confines of self-interest, humans seek happiness. This pursuit of happiness becomes intertwined with our interactions with others, leading to the realisation that our well-being is often contingent upon the well-being of society as a whole.

The Paradox of Selfishness

Rousseau's perspective challenges the conventional assumption that selfishness is antithetical to the welfare of society. Instead, he suggests that enlightened self-interest can propel individuals to contribute positively to their communities. By recognising the interconnectedness of our well-being and the well-being of others, we can embrace a form of "selfishness" that encompasses the pursuit of happiness through cooperation and mutual benefit.

Redefining Sociability

Rousseau's ideas prompt reconsidering what it means to be a social creature. While some may argue that humans are innately sociable, Rousseau proposes that our sociability is, in fact, a calculated choice. We engage in social contracts not primarily due to an inherent social nature but rather because we recognise the practical advantages of collective living.

Implications for Society

Understanding the nature of the social contract and the role of enlightened self-interest has far-reaching implications for the structure and functioning of society. Rousseau's insights encourage us to reassess the balance between individual liberties and collective responsibilities, fostering a society that values cooperation, empathy, and the pursuit of shared happiness.

"The problem is to find a form of association that will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before." The Social Contract, Book I, Chapter VI


Jean-Jacques Rousseau's exploration of the social contract challenges conventional wisdom regarding the inherent sociability of human beings. Through his thought-provoking ideas, we come to understand that while we may not be naturally inclined towards sociability, our pursuit of happiness and self-interest can harmonise with the collective well-being of society. Embracing the notion of enlightened self-interest allows us to redefine our understanding of sociability, encouraging a more compassionate, cooperative, and harmonious social order.